The casualties in the course of the Kurdish-Turkish conflict have triggered mutual distrust, aversion and abhorrence among the Kurdish and Turkish people. Therefore, the reconciliation between the Kurds and Turks seems to be extremely unachievable, as the Turkish society does not acknowledge the political, cultural and social identity of the Kurdish people in Turkey while the Kurds insist on their demands for their political, cultural and social recognition under constitutional law. The Turkish government also does not want to take serious actions for reconciliation and peace. The oppositions in the Turkish parliament consisting of nationalist parties regard any democratic steps and any small efforts for the reconciliation and peace in Turkish society as treason, whereas the media and Turkish institutions are very precautious in the democratization and Kurdish debates on the agenda in Turkey.
In short, the Turkish hostility towards the Kurds will not simply disappear unless Turkey is integrated into the civilized and democratic society and is ready to negotiate with the representatives of Kurdish people for a steady solution.
The democratic regional institutions in peace and conflict research have explicitly acknowledged that human rights, the rule of law, a vibrant civil society, strong institutions and sound socio-economic management are key ingredients of conflict prevention and conflict resolution as opposed to mere crisis management or conflict settlement. The promotion of civil society organization and institutions for monitoring a successful transformation process is a necessary instrument in Turkey to take over initiative for a peaceful solution in Kurdish Turkish conflict.
Hence, the civil society and democratic NGO´s should back up a restructured political system in Turkey in the context of peace and reconciliation process that is unavoidable for the consolidation of pluralistic and representative democracy. The Kurdish and Turkish representatives ought to promote the civil society that is understood as a guard against the powerful state and as a source of civil education. It could also be a key actor for the promotion of pluralistic and representative democracy in Turkey. The civil society acts as an autonomous actor for serving democracy by assisting the development of democratic values such as trust, tolerance and compromise among the Kurdish and Turkish people because the people of both groups have to approach each other for reconciliation
It is first of all inevitable that both conflicting parties have to be defined and Turkey has to be convinced to recognize the Kurdish representatives for negotiation because settling the Kurdish-Turkish conflict and the successful completion of the democratic reform process for a new political and constitutional system in Turkey needs to be based on consensus among all affected groups.
Finally, the international and domestic institution has to bolster both the Turkish government and the representatives of the Kurdish people as domestic actors to constitute various instances such as a Truth and Reconciliation commission like in South Africa that can inquire about persons in charge of casualties during the long-termed conflict and several institutions that can alleviate the pain of victims and deal with the aftermath of the conflict between the Kurdish and Turkish people, because the casualties of the conflict are enormous, especially on the Kurdish side, whose region has become the field of struggle for many years. The establishment of various institutions including independent courts set up, can undertake several essential and conducive tasks and lead generally to democracy and durable peace, such as power sharing, third-party security guarantees, and justice provisions. The justice provisions are divided into “retributive justice” and “restorative justice”. The retributive justice, referring to the repair of justice through the unilateral imposition of punishment, could be used for punishing the militarily and civil persons on both sides when they have perpetrated crime against civilians during the conflict or for granting amnesty for so called persons if it exerts an impact on transformation of their consciences. The restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value- consensus in a bilateral process might make sure that the displaced Kurds receive suitable compensation due to evacuation of their villages by the military including relatives of devastated persons and tortured victims by the security forces or armed groups such as village guard, which has to be abolished.
Therefore, the democratic institution, NGO´s and civil society organization should not merely focus on the wishes of the Turkish people through the Turkish government, but it has to take the demands and realities of Kurdish people in Turkey into consideration in order to contribute to a society of pluralism, tolerance, justice, solidarity and non-discrimination.